With surging world population and global trade reaching its peak, technological advancement in each and every field is the necessity of the hour. Every industry, including parking systems are undergoing transformation in terms of innovation. This has proved to be beneficial for all since it helps in sustainable parking space management and convenient urban mobility through smart parking systems (SPS).
Smart parking management systems redefine parking experience by leveraging space utility optimization technology, therefore, streamlining management of urban parking spaces and tackling related issues such as space limitation, floor by floor space searches, long waiting time during peak hours, manpower (valet, managers, chauffeurs) requirement and traffic congestion by 30-50%.
With the advent of COVID-19, self-driving and parking became necessary to avoid public transit and shared mobility. This gave the opportunity for smart parking system industry to boom, and it is expected that its global market value will increase multifold from USD 8.85 billion in 2022 to USD 34.62 billion in 2029, rising at a CAGR of 21.5%.
The above diagrams showcase regional analysis & expected CAGR of Smart Parking Systems from 2022 to 2029
Enhancing SPS with Technological Integrations
There can be various instances of technological integration in these smart parking systems, for example, IoT enabled systems that detect how vehicles are positioned in retail parking lots, applications for booking parking spaces in real-time, predicting vacant spaces for all incoming vehicles that may require parking in multi-storey garages based on daily trends, common online forums and applications for flow of information and feedback amongst parking space providers and smart city commuters etc. Let us look at some of the integrations one by one:
1. IoT and Sensor Integration
Smart sensors form the basis of these systems, since these detect whether a vehicle is parked, in an appropriate manner, in a particular space in the region of interest or not in real-time. Connected to these sensors, is the Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) technology via machine-to-machine connectivity that facilitates seamless transmission of analysed data to a centralized server or parking system. These accurate wireless ultrasonic (25 to 50 kHz, ZigBee protocol), active or passive infrared (placed within garages due to damage by snowy or rainy conditions) sensors help drivers to save their precious time, around 3.5 to 14 minutes in average, which may otherwise have been spent on looking for vacant parking spaces.
Some specialized sensors attached to IoT based parking management system can also be made capable of monitoring hardware devices, as well as alerting managers in case of network failure, requiring offline mode of operations with integration of inspection tools. It also helps in saving costs and sustainable operations, for example, smart lights (may be affected by shadow or occlusion) powered by pucks that can save energy and reduce carbon footprint, these stay lit above available parking spots and turn on as and when user returns to the spot.
2. Parking Space Prediction and Analytics
When data analytics software is integrated into these systems, historical parking data can be collected, analysed and made accessible to these smart parking management systems. Consequently, deep learning algorithms combined with fuzzy logic works with machine vision technology present in these systems and would be able to filter contingencies, predict, report and alert about parking space utilization and availability on the basis of past trends and parking bay patterns in dashboard formats.
With the help of predictive modeling, city planners can efficiently analyse and optimize parking infrastructure, avoid additional parking related construction expenses, promote smart urban development and address traffic congestion as well as pollution in the city. Also, commuters can organize their journey plan effectively within minimum time.
3. Payment Gateway & Tariff Engine Integration
Gone are the times of long waiting queues for vehicle parking, as intelligent parking management systems allow booking via immediate payment methods such as mobile-based banking apps, secured by Blockchain technology. This also addresses concerns regarding data tempering by various parties involved and extends a sense of trust and better performance by these systems as compared to inconvenient traditional parking manoeuvres.
The parking space pre-booking or overall payment during exits can be governed by the occupant’s requirements, for example, contract parking, short term parking, payment based on duration of parking during exit or remote support cum troubleshooting executed, that is analysed and processed by online and offline tariff engines, thus, reducing manual intervention. This also reduces unnecessary costs incurred for parking ticket machines, coins and access cards.
4. License Plate Recognition Integration
Smart parking systems possess an extra layer of security with the integration of machine vision-based high-quality image capturing cameras and license/number plate recognition technology trained with PKLot database and 3D scene information. Not only does it provide real-time updates on commercial parking lots occupancy, but it also allows automated entry and exit procedures as per the stored number plate database. Also, real-time identification as well as classification (for example, SVM-89% accuracy, logistic regression algorithm) of unauthorised parking reduces security related risks and assists in swift responsive action for antitheft services.
Some other methods of accessing parking spots automatically includes recognition of vehicle through Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Near-Field Communication (NFC) tags-based access, Reverse QR Code, QR code and Barcode-based access, Bluetooth Low Energy-based (BLE) access and more, that can be identified by magnetometers (placed beneath the parking surface), inductive loop detectors, microwave radars (velocity detection), barriers etc. present in the bay.
5. Multi-Agent Systems Integration
These systems provide an overall enhanced parking experience through web-based and mobile-based applications that convey parking space information in real-time to drivers so that they can plan their journey well in advance and book parking spaces at their region and time of convenience. Aligned with the smart parking systems, these Android and iOS applications (architecture based on JaCaMo tools in CArtAgo environment) enable commuters to easily reach different types of on-street and off-street vacant parking spots specific for vehicles of different models, sizes and handicapped individuals etc., through integration of GPS (accuracy limited to 0.71 to 7.8 m) navigation and guidance. Now-a-days, autonomous vehicles feature vehicle-to-vehicle communication (Vehicular ad hoc Network – VANET powered by Road Side Unit and On-Board Unit communication) that indirectly facilitates and eases the process of finding parking spots in the concerned region.
These apps gain data from intelligent parking management systems in real-time and showcase features like reminders about parked cars, parking invoices, notifications about vacant spots in that are nearer to the region of interest etc. Sometimes, self-kiosks, and variable message signages showcase presence of available spots, and may be placed near user-friendly smart meters, that accurately track the total number of parked vehicles and handheld ticketing machines. Thus, this helps in regulation of traffic flow in the region and avoids congestion.
The above diagram shows approaches, sensors, UI, networks and services for Smart Parking
Navigate Tomorrow’s Urban Landscapes
With technological integrations in smart parking systems, the overall parking experience of commuters is enhanced while a free flow of traffic is guaranteed. With Blockchain technology integration users can rest assure the privacy of their transactional data which is secured by Blockchain technology. Safety of the parked vehicles, continuous checks on unauthorized parking and automated exit and entry processes can be ensured through integration of high-quality image capturing cameras and license plate recognition technology.
By integrating data analytics tools and deep learning prediction modeling, vacant spots and vehicle inflow can be predicted and reported to users through GPS integrated mobile and web-based applications, thus, reducing waiting time. These systems help to avoid additional parking infrastructure, manpower as well as ticket printing machines related expenses. Lastly, sensors enabled IoT technology integration helps in real-time available parking spot detection, reporting to centralized systems as well as conserving energy through sustainable smart lights etc. Some value-added services such as car wash, provision of electric charging point, maintenance etc. can also be made available whilst the vehicles are parked in the bay.
KritiKal Solutions has over two decades of experience in computer vision solutions and deep learning techniques. It has developed various machine vision solutions for SMBs and Fortune 500 companies, such as building a deep learning-powered, vehicle classifying, vision analytics-based smart parking management system with parking irregularity alerts for facilitating parking bays’ vehicular flow, entry and exit procedures. Join hands with KritiKal Solutions and leverage state-of-the-art seamless integration of smart parking technology for developing an efficient, user-friendly and a more sustainable environment. Please do feel free to call us or mail us at email@example.com to avail our services.
Rajaram Tripathy holds the position of Delivery Manager at KritiKal Solutions. He has a vast experience of over 20+ years in managing and delivering projects across various geographies from inception to delivery. He has dedicatedly helped KritiKal in delivering computer vision, cloud-related projects and many more for various SMBs and Fortune500 companies.